Bullock, J.M., Fuentes-Montemayor, E., McCarthy, B., Park, K., Hails, R.S., Woodcock, B.A., Watts, K., Corstanje, R. & Harris, J. (2021) Future restoration should enhance ecological complexity and emergent properties at multiple scales. Ecography

Figure 1. A conceptual diagram depicting increasing degrees of ecological complexity within a system. As the number of components and connections increases so does complexity (Box 1). As complexity increases, so do emergent properties such as ecosystem functioning and resilience. In this case, an ecosystem is depicted, and the progression from left to right could be a restoration trajectory, but the same principles apply at multiple scales (Fig. 2).

Woodcock, B.A., Pywell, R.F., Macgregor, N.A., Edwards, M.E., Redhead, J., Ridding, L.E., Batáry, P., Czerwiński, M. & Duffield, S. (2021) Historical, local and landscape factors determine the success of grassland restoration for arthropods. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 308, 107271.

Fig. 2. Response of arthropod communities to the success with which the restoration sites replicated target floral communities typical of high quality species rich grasslands measured using Jaccard’s similarity. .